Pareto optimumu

Toplumdaki üretici, tüketici ve etken sahiplerinden birinin durumunu kötüleştirmeden bunlardan bir başkasınınkinin durumunu iyileştirmenin mümkün olmaması. Yani toplumdaki bireylerden en az birinin refahını azaltmadan diğer birinin refahını artırma imkânı yoksa o toplumun refahı optimumdur.

Antitezimsin

bir önyargı biçimidir aşk. ihtiyaç duyduğun şeyi seversin, sana iyi bir duygu veren şeyi, işine geleni. dünyada tanıyabilsen daha çok seveceğin on kişi varken birine aşık olduğunu nasıl söyleyebilirsin? ama asla tanımayacaksın o insanlar

yıllarca yenil…

yıllarca yenilgisiz osmanlı ordusu hikayeleri ile büyütüldük, şimdi de bunlarla oyalanıyoruz, ki birebir benim vatan evladım bile değil..benim ülkeme hizmet etmiyorsa türk olsa neyime yarar..kendimizi tatmin mi ediyoruz? buna ihtiyacımız yok bence, dünyaca kabul gören tarih araştırmalarını okuyunca da doğrusuyla yanlışıyla gurur duyuyorum ecdadımla ve milletimle, şişirilmiş efsaneleri duyunca değil..

https://eksisozluk.com/entry/27960533

“Oyun, gereksiz…

“Oyun, gereksiz bazı engelleri göze alıp bunları gönüllü olarak aşmaktır. Temel özellikleri; Amacı, kuralları olması ve oyuncu bir tavır içermesidir.”

Bernard Suits

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lusory_attitude

Ten Expeditionary Learning Principles

 

These 10 principles, which seek to describe a caring, adventurous school culture and approach to learning, were drawn from the ideas of Kurt Hahn and other education leaders for use in Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound (ELOB) schools.

1. The primacy of self-discovery

Learning happens best with emotion, challenge and the requisite support. People discover their abilities, values, passions, and responsibilities in situations that offer adventure and the unexpected. In Expeditionary Learning schools, students undertake tasks that require perseverance, fitness, craftsmanship, imagination, self-discipline, and significant achievement. A teacher’s primary task is to help students overcome their fears and discover they can do more than they think they can.

2. The having of wonderful ideas

Teaching in Expeditionary Learning schools fosters curiosity about the world by creating learning situations that provide something important to think about, time to experiment, and time to make sense of what is observed.

3. The responsibility for learning

Learning is both a personal process of discovery and a social activity. Everyone learns both individually and as part of a group. Every aspect of an Expeditionary Learning school encourages both children and adults to become increasingly responsible for directing their own personal and collective learning.

4. Empathy and caring

Learning is fostered best in communities where students’ and teachers’ ideas are respected and where there is mutual trust. Learning groups are small in Expeditionary Learning schools, with a caring adult looking after the progress and acting as an advocate for each child. Older students mentor younger ones, and students feel physically and emotionally safe.

5. Success and failure

All students need to be successful if they are to build the confidence and capacity to take risks and meet increasingly difficult challenges. But it is also important for students to learn from their failures, to persevere when things are hard, and to learn to turn disabilities into opportunities.

6. Collaboration and competition

Individual development and group development are integrated so that the value of friendship, trust, and group action is clear. Students are encouraged to compete not against each other but with their own personal best and with rigorous standards of excellence.

7. Diversity and inclusion

Both diversity and inclusion increase the richness of ideas, creative power, problem-solving ability, respect for others. In Expeditionary Learning schools, students investigate value their different histories talents as well as those of other communities cultures. Schools learning groups heterogeneous.

8. The natural world

direct respectful relationship with the natural world refreshes the human spirit teaches the important ideas of recurring cycles and cause and effect. Students learn to become stewards of the earth and of future generations.

9. Solitude and reflection

Students and teachers need time alone to explore their own thoughts, make their own connections, and create their own ideas. They also need time to exchange their reflections with others.

10. Service and compassion

We are crew, not passengers. Students and teachers are strengthened by acts of consequential service to others, and one of an Expeditionary Learning school’s primary functions is to prepare students with the attitudes and skills to learn from and be of service to others.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Hahn

Hahn’s values:…

Hahn’s values: concern and compassion for others, the willingness to accept responsibility, and concern and tenacity in pursuit of the truth.

Bakalorya

Bakalorya, orta öğrenimi bitirme imtihanı ya da üniversitelerin verdiği en aşağı akademik paye.

Avrupa ve Amerika’daki bazı yüksek okullarda, bitirme imtihanını vermeden yapılan bazı imtihanlara bakalorya denmektedir. Bu üniversitelerin bazı fakültelerinde çeşitli imtihanlarda başarı kazanan öğrencilere, başarı kazandığı dersle ilgili akademik payeler verilmektedir.

Türkiye’de ilk defa Galatasaray Lisesi‘nde uygulanmıştır. İkinci Meşrutiyet devrinde, liselerle denk olan o zamanki idadileri bitirenlerin yüksek okullara ve üniversitelere girmeleri, bakalorya denilen imtihanı vermeleri ile mümkün olmuştur. 1926 – 1935 yılları arasındaki lise bitirme imtihanları ile 1935 yılından beri yürürlükte olan olgunluk imtihanları, bakalorya özelliğinde olan imtihanlardır.

http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bakalorya